The Chicago or Turabian referencing style is typically used for humanitarian subjects’ papers. One of the characteristic features of the Chicago style is that it places the bibliographic citations at the end of the paper or at the bottom of the page. Also, Turabian style is often used as a note system in history and the arts. Our article will provide you with the basic rules of citing, footnoting and formatting the paper if you are required to use Chicago/Turabian style.
- 1. Notes in Chicago citing style.
- There are several points that must be documented in the essay: paraphrases and summaries, direct quotations, the ideas which are not common knowledge, and any material that is borrowed but may seem to be your own if you do not use citation.
- Notes are usually placed at the bottom of each page and separated with the typed line from the main text.
- Some of professors prefer students to use endnotes on the separate page.
- For indicating the number of note you should use a superscript number at the end of each cited sentence. You should not put any punctuation mark after the number.
- The corresponding number must be put in the note or an endnote but without raising the number above the line. Notes are usually single-spaced and there is double spacing between the each note.
- If your paragraphs has several quotations, paraphrases, summary etc. from one author you are allowed to put the number after the last quotation by this author.
- If you use the reference for the second time you can use the shortened variant of note. There are two ways how you can shorten the note:
1) Indicating only the name of the author and number of page;
2) Indicating the author, name of the source and the number of page.
- There is no need to write p. or pp. for pages. You should only use the numbers.
- 2. Bibliography in Chicago/Turabian style.
- Bibliography is typically placed in the end of the paper and listed in alphabetical order.
- You can call this section in your paper “Selected bibliography” as the word “bibliography” means in general all the sources that exist on the topic.
- Also, the name of this part can be “Works Cited” and “References” if you are indicating only the books, articles or online sources, which you have cited.
- Although the notes and bibliography page both contain similar information they have slight difference in formatting:
- Sources are listed in the alphabetical order, notes are typically numbered;
- Bibliography uses periods in order to divide items while comas and parenthesis are used in notes;
- The last name of the author goes first in the bibliography;
- Notes indicate the pages only which you used for citing and paraphrasing. Bibliography page must include the name of the whole source of chapter which you referred in your paper.
- You should begin each bibliography point with the last name of the other but if it is unknown or not given you just have to start with the title of the book or article, which is simply the next thing in order after the name.